Vol 28, No 6 (2020)

Full Issue

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Articles
The psychological impacts of quarantine on international students’ life satisfaction in Russia during coronavirus COVID-19
Mehdi A., Ryazantsev S.V., Ali S.
Abstract
As coronavirus quarantine period is increasing, concerns are growing about its possible impact on international migrants and students. The article discusses the basics of quarantine concept and its impact during COVID-19 pandemic. The purpose of study is to develop scale to determine relationship between such factors as financial stability, living condition, educational condition, social life and physiological reactions with psychological stability and life satisfaction of international students in Russia. The focus is done on international students of Russian universities. The questionnaires (n=300) were distributed among target respondents using the convenience random sampling technique. The analysis of survey results established relationship between the factors mentioned above and international students’ psychological stability and life satisfaction. The study results proved that the original scale applied in this study is reliable and valid to assess level of life satisfaction. Therefore, policy makers should resolve related problems, including financial incentives, availability of such products as food and hygiene products through applying proper and sufficient information about the situation. using distance learning technologies, communication tools to insure positive impact on life satisfaction of international students. Moreover, the study results can provide to prospect researchers in the field of life satisfaction and psychological stability reliable and useful information.
Problems of Social Hygiene, Public Health and History of Medicine. 2020;28(6):1231-1239
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The Morbidity of Children Population and Its Regional Characteristics in the Russian Federation in 2012-2018
Mirgorodskaya O.V., Schepin V.O., Chicherin L.P.
Abstract
The article presents the analysis of results of the study of incidence and prevalence of children diseases in Russia in 2012-2018 including structure of diseases classes, regional characteristics in the Federal okrugs and regions and assessment of chronization coefficient. The significant changes are established in incidence cases rate by disease classes in the Federal districts and regions, in dynamics of chronization coefficient, and their absence in morbidity structure.
Problems of Social Hygiene, Public Health and History of Medicine. 2020;28(6):1240-1246
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The Medical Demographic Problems of Rural Population
Kalininskaya A.A., Bayanova N.A., Muftahova A.V., Sulkina F.A., Rassoha D.V.
Abstract
The demographic processes significantly affect society demographic burden. The geopolitical position of Russia with predominance of rural territories determines the need in developing specific model of medical and demographic policy in rural territories. The situation with population health and health care support in rural areas remains difficult due to the prevailing demographic, economic, territorial, medical, social and organizational and managerial factors of rural life. Purpose of study. To develop proposals improving health care in rural areas based on results of analysis of medical and demographic indices of incidence and accessibility of medical care to rural residents. Methods: statistical, direct observation, analytical.Results. The current medical and demographic situation in the country determined the output of Law No. 350-FZ on raising the retirement age in Russia, which was signed on October 3, 2018 by Vladimir Putin. Increasing the retirement age requires development of set of measures protecting population health of pre-retirement age. The article presents analysis of urban and rural population health in the Russian Federation in age-gender dependence (the younger than able-bodied, the able-bodied and the older than able-bodied groups of population). A comparative analysis of medical and demographic indices of urban and rural population in dynamics in 2005-2018 is presented. The article also presents analysis of total and primary morbidity of total urban and rural population in the Russian Federation according classes of diseases (2018) and in dynamics (2010-2018). It is established that decreasing of indices of general and primary morbidity is the result of reduced detection, deterioration of preventive and dispensary activities in rural areas and limited availability of medical care in rural settlements. The need for medical and social care of the able-bodied human potential in rural areas and the development of programs for their health conservation is substantiated. To overcome aftermaths of demographic crisis in rural areas, it is necessary to modernize demographic and economic policy in rural areas. The tasks of the municipal and Federal authorities are to provide not only declarative «program» support, but also tangible resources, as well as practices to implement strategic tasks in rural areas. The article presents proposals for overcoming the medical and demographic crisis in rural areas.
Problems of Social Hygiene, Public Health and History of Medicine. 2020;28(6):1247-1251
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The Mental Health and Chronic Infectious Diseases
Nikiforov S.A., Allenov A.M., Arestova A.A., Lvova D.P., Alehin S.G.
Abstract
Actually, the problem of decreasing growing burden of NCD is especially acute both worldwide and in the Russian Federation. According to the results of scientific research in recent decades, mental disorders are increasingly considered as the new main group of CNCDs. The article presents data from scientific publications concerning issues of relationship between mental and somatic health, corresponding key research approaches, prevention and treatment of mental diseases, including associated with the main groups of CNCDs, effect of borderline mental disorders on body systems functioning.
Problems of Social Hygiene, Public Health and History of Medicine. 2020;28(6):1252-1258
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The Gender Age Characteristics of the Population of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia): The Potential of Reproduction
Lebedeva U.M., Mingazova E.N.
Abstract
The article presents the results of analysis of regional characteristics of age-gender structure of population from point of view of reproduction of subsequent generations as exemplified by the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia). The stable population growth was established, as opposed to decreasing of this indicator in the Far Eastern Federal District and its unstable dynamics throughout country as a whole. There is increasing of burden on the able-bodied population with decreasing in its number and increasing percentage of population older than able-bodied age. In long-term dynamics, the study established decreasing of number of children aged 0-4 years and adolescents aged 15-17 years. While since 2015 there was increasing in number of girls (potential mothers) aged 5-9 and 10-14 years. The reduction of number of women of reproductive age with the volatility of number of women of childbearing age is alarming, resulting in lesser stability of demographic indices of population reproduction.
Problems of Social Hygiene, Public Health and History of Medicine. 2020;28(6):1259-1264
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The Indices of Morbidity of Main Socially Significant Noninfectious Diseases of Population of the Republic of Tatarstan
Shulaev A.V., Kitaeva E.A., Kitaev M.R.
Abstract
Socially significant diseases cause enormous damage to entire modern society and require higher expenses for prevention, treatment and rehabilitation. The most studied socially significant diseases include cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, mental disorders, alcoholism, and oncologic diseases. The study purpose is to assess incidence of major socially significant diseases, including malignant nephropathy, mental disorders and alcoholism in the Republic of Tatarstan during 1997-2017. The discussion. According to the analysis results, there was gradual increasing of incidence of malignant necrosis in the Republic of Tatarstan during the analyzed period i.e. from 240.5 cases to 412.9 cases per 100 thousand of population. The incidence of mental disorders in males was significantly higher than in females. The maximal discrepancy of indices, amounting up to 252.6 cases per 100 thousand of population, was different in 1998. The gap gradually decreased and by 2017 made up to to 62.6 cases per 100 thousand of population. The dynamics of the incidence of alcoholism characterized by increasing up to to 2001. Since 2004, gradual decreasing of indicator was in 2011-2017. The incidence of alcoholism ranged from 123.5 to 129.6 cases per 100 thousand of population. Conclusion. The decreasing in the incidence of mental disorders and alcoholism was established during study period, as well as gradual increasing of incidence of cancer in the Republic of Tatarstan.
Problems of Social Hygiene, Public Health and History of Medicine. 2020;28(6):1265-1269
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The Comprehensive Organization of Identification of Tuberculosis in Population of the Eastern Siberian Region
Gaydarov G.M., Aphanova N.S.
Abstract
The early detection of tuberculosis is one of the priority targets in the system of anti-tuberculosis care of population, regardless of epidemiological and socio-economic conditions. The effectiveness of these activities depends on system of organization, methods of detection, quality of planning and implementing preventive examinations for tuberculosis among population. Despite decreasing of morbidity and mortality from tuberculosis in the Irkutsk oblast, it belongs to the territories with high prevalence of tuberculosis. Until 2011, the increasing of incidence of tuberculosis in the Irkutsk region occurred mainly due to increasing of effectiveness of measures of active detection of tuberculosis in population. In 2012-2019, the incidence rate tends to decrease while maintaining appropriate level of efficiency of active detection of disease. In context of improving epidemiological situation of tuberculosis, it is necessary to focus organizational efforts on active detection of tuberculosis mainly in risk groups, with simultaneous increasing of detection of disease in population by referral to medical organizations of primary medical care.
Problems of Social Hygiene, Public Health and History of Medicine. 2020;28(6):1270-1274
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The Self-Preserving Behavior of Citizen of The Russian Federation: Health Assessment and Possibilities of Longevity
Rostovskaya T.G., Shabunova A.A., Knyazkova E.A.
Abstract
The self-preserving behavior, as well as matrimonial, reproductive and migratory behavior, is component of demographic behavior and is characterized by complexity of evaluating and interpretating data obtained. The statistics provide no information about effectiveness of disease-oriented measures that affect longer healthy life expectancy and measures improving accessibility and quality of care that affect life expectancy and quality of patients with chronic diseases and the disabled. This information was derived from the results of sociological survey «The Demographic Well-being of Russia» implemented by the Institute of Social and Political Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences in 2020-2021. This article is devoted to the results of this study in terms of assessment by Russians their own health status and possibility of longevity.
Problems of Social Hygiene, Public Health and History of Medicine. 2020;28(6):1275-1280
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The Evaluation of External Business Processes in Export of Medical Services in the Russian Federation
Orlov S.A., Madyanova V.V., Stolbov A.P., Kachkova O.E.
Abstract
The study objective is to develop classification and to characterize main business processes (production relationships) arising during development of export of medical services in the Russian Federation. Methods. The study was based on information derived from publications off- and on-line, analysis and evaluation of regulatory legal acts, structuring processes of interaction between elements of organizational system. Results. The classification and characteristics of 59 major external business processes arising in process of developing the export of medical services as part of interaction of subject pairs represented by government organizations, business structures and foreign citizens are proposed. The individual regulating documents also were considered. Interpretation. The proposed structured forms of interaction between subjects participating in export of medical services will help developing new or improving existing regulatory legal acts needed for effective implementation of this process.
Problems of Social Hygiene, Public Health and History of Medicine. 2020;28(6):1281-1286
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The Psychological Status of the Disabled due to ischemic heart disease
Puzin S.N., Chandirli S.F., Shurgaya M.A., Gribova E.P.
Abstract
The article analyzes psychological state of the disabled due to ischemic heart disease. It is established that depressive mood prevailing among the disabled decreases their quality of life and impedes effective medical and social rehabilitation that requires implementation of measures restoring psychological status of the disabled through rehabilitation program.
Problems of Social Hygiene, Public Health and History of Medicine. 2020;28(6):1287-1290
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The Self-Evaluation of Health and Psycho-Emotional Status of the Young Families and Population of Adolescent Youth Age
Leschenko Y.A., Boeva A.V.
Abstract
The purpose of the study was to investigate characteristics of health and psycho-emotional status according to self-assessment in young families and contingents of adolescence, residing in the Irkutsk oblast, in the second decade of XXI century. Methods. The study implemented technology of self-assessment of the level of individual health according five-point scale in groups of adolescents, students, and the families. The methodology also considered presence of chronic diseases, manifestations of painful symptoms, rate of cases of diseases during the year, number of visits to physician, causes of disease, treatment costs. The prompt diagnosis was implemented regarding psycho-emotional stress on the basis of method of O. S. Kopina et al. (2004). In families and among students, the degree of satisfaction with various aspects of life was rated. Results. The number of persons among adult family member, who rated their health status as satisfactory, was higher than among adolescents and youths by 2.0 and 1.5 times (χ2 = 11.2, p = 0.02). The highest frequency of self-assessment of health as “bad” and “very poor” was among students. Teenage-girls and student-girls were statistically significantly more likely than young boys to note morphofunctional disorders on the part of various organs and systems. In adolescent groups, 2.3% of boys and 10.9% of girls; in the groups of students - 8.9% of boys and 12.8% of girls reported pathology of reproductive system. The main reasons of visiting patients for medical care are: respiratory and digestive diseases, allergic and neurological diseases. Students and family adult members also suffered of circulatory system diseases. The family adult members experienced high level of psychoemotional stress more frequently than adolescents by 3.4 times, students - 2.9 times (χ2 = 31.3; p < 0.001), which corresponded to lower indicators of satisfaction of the family adult members with living conditions. Findings. The high frequency of morphofunctional disorders, neurotic and psychosomatic manifestations among examined individuals indicate significant prevalence of autonomic nervous system dysfunctions and latent pathological processes.
Problems of Social Hygiene, Public Health and History of Medicine. 2020;28(6):1291-1297
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The indices of Morbidity and Mortality of acute pancreatitis as indicator of medical care condition on regional level
Imaeva A.K., Mustafin T.I., Polovinkina S.R.
Abstract
The high digital incidence rates of acute pancreatitis world-wide and the death rates from its destructive forms explain the great interest to this problem. Among diseases of gastrointestinal tract, this pathology is characterized by variety of clinical manifestations, frequent severe complications, difficult choice of proper tactics of treatment and severe prognosis of development of disease. The gallstone disease, alcohol abuse are among most common causes of development of disease. However, it is important to study statistical indices of prevalence and mortality of acute pancreatitis at the regional level. The purpose of study was to analyze incidence and mortality of acute pancreatitis in 2010-2018. The indices were analyzed in the region as a whole and as well as in the Medical Districts of the Republic of Bashkortostan. The incidence of acute pancreatitis had period of acute upraise in 2010 (86.5) and 2018 (76.6). At the same time, mortality since 2011 (4.7) was characterized by slight increasing and up to 2018 it almost doubled (8.1). The overall picture demonstrates increasing of mentioned indices in the region. In case of acute pancreatitis, mortality increased from 7.4 in 2010 to 10.5 in 2018. It can be explained by increasing incidence of destructive forms of disease, when severe and sometimes fatal complications often develop. In the republic nine medical districts were organized making possible to judge more clearly the change in morbidity and mortality depending on the territorial affiliation. The analysis of these statistical indices for medical districts demonstrated objectivity of assessing state of medical care. In particular districts (Birsk, Neftekamsk), timely retrospective assessment of morbidity and mortality rates of acute pancreatitis and the comprehensive measures resulted in their stabilization and even decreasing. A clear record of medical records, considering all sick and dead from acute pancreatitis, helps to improve organizational, preventive and therapeutic measures.
Problems of Social Hygiene, Public Health and History of Medicine. 2020;28(6):1298-1303
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The Estimate of life quality of Patients under treatment in specialized otorhinolaryngological departments
Zolotarev P.N., Illarionova E.V., Minaev Y.L.
Abstract
The paper presents information reflecting assessment of quality of life of patients of otorhinolaryngological departments of the Togliatti, Samara oblast, who were admitted for planned surgical treatment and had no severe comorbidity. The study examined dynamics of quality of life of patients against the background of treatment. The SF-36 questionnaire was applied to assess the quality of life. The study established portrait of operated patients in otorhinolaryngological departments. It was found that planned otorhinolaryngological surgical treatment in specialized in-patient departments of Togliatti generally had positive effect on quality of life of patients. It was also found that there were no statistically significant changes in the indicators “pain intensity” and “viability”.
Problems of Social Hygiene, Public Health and History of Medicine. 2020;28(6):1304-1307
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The Actual Aspects of Medical Social Monitoring of patients of elderly age
Tikhonova N.V., Olokhova E.A., Zharova A.V., Mysik M.Y., Volkova O.A.
Abstract
The article presents the results of research carried out jointly by the Krasnoyarsk state medical institute and the regional gerontological center. The data concerning health condition of gerontological patients was collected in 2019. The most sensitive problems of medical and social support of elderly patients were established. The results demonstrated that the elderly patients apply self-medication in terms of independent (without medical appointment) use of medications on daily basis that is potentially dangerous for their health. The particular place is occupied by non-steroid anti-inflammatory medications to stop painful syndrome of various etiologies. The low patient compliance is associated with inadequate communicative activity of physicians. The lacking of insomnia therapy in elderly patients with was established too. The identified problems require timely identification and necessitate special approaches to medical and social support of elderly patients, including intensive education of medical literacy and knowledge concerning methods of prevention, treatment and healthy lifestyle.
Problems of Social Hygiene, Public Health and History of Medicine. 2020;28(6):1308-1313
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The secular variability of physical development of the youth as risk factor of cardiovascular diseases
Zimina S.N., Negasheva M.A., Hafizova A.A.
Abstract
The article discusses results of complex cross-sectional and anthropometric medical check up in the M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University in 2002-2003 and 2013. The sampling covered 494 students aged 18-23 years. The check up included basic anthropometric measurements and cardiovascular parameters. The pulse pressure and Bayevsky adaptation potential were calculated. Results. The secular trend in body mass increasing was established. So, decade variations was +3.3 kg in young men (p=0.021) and +1.8 kg in girls (p=0.098). The cardiovascular system parameters degraded over ten years: occurrence of bradycardia and tachycardia increased significantly for both genders. In most observed participants in 2002-2003 the sufficient adaptation according Bayevsky was established (75.1% in young men and 71.6% in girls). Over ten years, this proportion decreased to 44.1% in young men (p=0.0000) and to 51.7% in girls (p=0.034). The percentage of adaptation failure cases increased. Conclusions. The analysis of decade dynamics demonstrated deterioration of physical development and somatic health parameters of modern youth. The established trends should be considered in planning health improving programs targeted to early prevention of cardiovascular diseases and development of adaptive capabilities of modern youth.
Problems of Social Hygiene, Public Health and History of Medicine. 2020;28(6):1314-1319
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The analysis of instruments of evaluation of quality of life of patients of elderly age in view of palliative medicine
Khabriev R.U., Stasevich N.Y., Polonskaya L.S., Zlatkina N.E., Kozlov S.I., Garaeva A.S.
Abstract
In quality of life research, it is very important to understand the concept and methodology of its implementation. The quality of life study should be organized in accordance with standard generally accepted requirements. In order to obtain comparable data and to apply it in clinical practice, standard quality of life assessment tools should be implemented. The questionnaires are common as the tools assessing quality of life. In the United States and Europe, as well as in Russia, special centers are organized to develop such questionnaires. There are General questionnaires that can be used to assess quality of life in case of various diseases and special questionnaires targeted to specific group of diseases. Currently, more than 400 special questionnaires are used in practice. In Russia, due to urgency of increasing propagation of socially significant non-communicable diseases, especially in elderly population, particular attention is focused on research in the area of quality of life in field of palliative medicine, assigned to alleviate suffering of incurable patient. Its main goal is to maintain optimal quality of life of patient.
Problems of Social Hygiene, Public Health and History of Medicine. 2020;28(6):1320-1325
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On the Methodology of Studying Organizational Technologies of Health Preservation
Nechaev V.S., Petrova I.A.
Abstract
The article considers methodological studying of problematics of health preservation and its organizational technologies. The health preservation is considered in the context of public health policy. The necessity of complex interdisciplinary and longitudinal approach to studying this problematic is substantiated. The results of analysis of semantics of key concepts of health preservation are presented. The patient-centralized principles of activities and communication as applied to health preservation are substantiated. The differentiation between concepts of “value” and “utility” of organizational technologies of health preservation for health are discussed. The possible areas of studying positioning of health preservation in the system of personality values, including health culture, are proposed. The possible structuration of factors determining health condition and healthy life-style are proved. The scope of principles and approaches for subsequent elaboration of methods, standards, instruments and regulations of complex methodology of studying issues of health preservation and its organizational technologies are established.
Problems of Social Hygiene, Public Health and History of Medicine. 2020;28(6):1326-1332
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The analysis of results of implementation of per capita payment with elements of fund-holding in the Russian Federation
Khalfin R.A., Muraviev D.N., Kakorina E.P., Rozalieva Y.Y., Krishtaleva T.I.
Abstract
The article presents the results of implementation of per capita payment with elements of fund-holding in the Russian regions. The objective of study was to develop proposals improving implementation of per capita payment for medical care with elements of fund-holding to decrease risks of its implementation in the regions of the Russian Federation. The definition of the concept of fund-holding is given. The obstacles for implementation of per capita payment with elements of fund-holding in the regions of the Russian Federation are considered. The suggestions are proposed for choosing areas for improving normative legal base regulating payment of medical care at the expense of compulsory medical insurance funds in the Russian Federation.
Problems of Social Hygiene, Public Health and History of Medicine. 2020;28(6):1333-1338
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The organizational features of three-stage program of prevention of rhinosinusitis in student youth
Tsartsidis E.A., Koshel V.N., Amlaev K.R.
Abstract
The problem of preserving health of students remains an important task due to peculiarities of their studies and life. The otorhinolaryngologic pathology, in particular rhinosinusitis, occupies one of leading positions in the structure of morbidity of students. The purpose of study is to assess morbidity in students and to develop three-stage prevention program with subsequent evaluation of its effectiveness. Materials and methods: analysis of the results of comprehensive medical examination of medical students in 2015-2017, otorhinolaryngologic pathology. The three-stage prevention program was developed and implemented. The program consisted of general strengthening basic program at the first stage, medication and physiotherapy program at the second stage and complex of Strelnikova respiratory gymnastics and with natural mineral water nasal lavage at the third stage. To evaluate effectiveness of the program, sampling of 164 students suffering of rhinosinusitis was randomized at three groups that passed the first, the second, or all 3 stages respectively. Results and conclusions. The analysis of structure of morbidity in students established high prevalence of otorhinolaryngologic pathology, mainly rhinosinusitis. The proposed three-stage prevention program, implemented in the University, decreased rate of common colds and annual hospitalizations and duration of rhinosinusitis.
Problems of Social Hygiene, Public Health and History of Medicine. 2020;28(6):1339-1343
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The methodical principles of organization of system of criteria of evaluation of quality and safety of medical activities under palliative medical care support
Kolomiychenko M.E.
Abstract
The evolution of the quality management system is one of strategic directions in health care. At present, however, the quality and safety management system of medical practice in providing palliative health care is not completely developed. The proposed methodological approaches to development of the benchmark system specify its application both to particular groups (quality of medical care and its organization; quality of its structure, process and results; hierarchical structure of benchmark system formation) and to such particular specifics of rendering palliative medical care as non-medical activities, assistance to relatives of patient. The study identified that one of the important criteria needed to be included into monitoring is the estimation of public awareness of possibilities of palliative medical care.
Problems of Social Hygiene, Public Health and History of Medicine. 2020;28(6):1344-1348
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The comprehensive approach to examination of female patients in diagnostic of benign diseases and breast cancer
Aminodova I.P., Vasilev M.D., Perminova E.V., Garaeva A.S., Konovalov O.E., Arseenkova O.Y.
Abstract
The integrated approach to diagnosis and dispensary monitoring of women with high risk for breast cancer, the active detection of combined pathology of endometrium are promising directions in prevention and timely diagnosis of breast and uterus malignant neoplasms. The study established that particular correction of measures of secondary prevention of breast cancer is needed, including formation of risk group and organization of dynamic monitoring of women with high risk of breast cancer development. The comprehensive examination of reproductive system organs, including evaluation of risk factors, combined use of mammography and sonography methods to examine mammary glands and condition of endometrium, can to increase accuracy of differential diagnosis and to avoid unneeded invasive interventions with mammary glands and early diagnosis of endometrial pathology.
Problems of Social Hygiene, Public Health and History of Medicine. 2020;28(6):1349-1354
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The anti-retrovirus therapy: Medicinal resources and their rational choice
Trapeznikova N.A., Rostova N.B., Loginova V.V.
Abstract
The purpose of the study was to determine potential availability of anti-retrovirus therapy and to justify proposals for selecting and prescribing rational combining of anti-retrovirus medications for HIV treatment. The objects of the study were anti-retrovirus medications authorized in the Russian Federation, information on current national and international approaches and recommendations concerning management of HIV-infected patient and application of anti-retrovirus therapy, including criteria of selecting medications and their combinations. The mathematical approach was applied to calculate the number of potential combinations of anti-retrovirus medications that can be applied to objects in certain conditions. The systemic approach was implemented including content analysis, methods of comparative and one-off analysis, generalization and grouping of information from regulatory documents on anti-retrovirus therapy and official materials on anti-retrovirus medications to develop algorithm of rational selection of anti-retrovirus treatment. Based on the results of the study, large number of potential combinations of anti-retrovirus medications were established to select the proper combination for treatment of HIV infection. The approach included organizational steps, evaluation criteria and algorithm of selecting rational combination of anti-retrovirus medications. The practical implementation of developed proposals can contribute to development of system of rational use of medications at the level of medical organization and to improve medication support of patients with HIV infection.
Problems of Social Hygiene, Public Health and History of Medicine. 2020;28(6):1355-1361
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The Regional Characteristics of Preventable Mortality of Population
Budaev B.S., Kitsul I.S., Tarmaeva I.J., Bogdanova O.G.
Abstract
The concept of preventable mortality makes it possible to assess health care reserves and to identify priorities of their improvement at the regional level. It was established that in the Republic of Buryatia during 2005-2019, the percentage of the first group by the levels of prevention of causes of death of the old list (Preventable) decreased by 6.1%, mainly due to injuries, poisoning and other consequences of external factors. The percentage of the second and third groups increased by 4.4% and 1.7%, respectively. The cause of increasing of preventable mortality are malignant neoplasms and diseases of respiratory system. The increase of mortality from malignant neoplasms made from11.4% i.e. from 166.3 (2005) up to 185.3 (2019) per 100 thousand of population caused by increasing of mortality of malignant neoplasms included in the first group (malignant neoplasms of lip, mouth, pharynx, esophagus, liver, intrahepatic bile ducts, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, urinary bladder). The increasing of mortality from malignant neoplasms in the second group occurred due to malignant neoplasms of skin, including melanoma, breast, cervix, uterus. In this case, the lateness of seeking medical care, which is characteristic of a large part of population is to be considered. The dynamics of proportion of respiratory diseases in the structure of the third group was characterized by wave-like curve, with minimum in 2008 (45.3%), and maximum in 2014 (65.1%). At the same time, overall mortality of respiratory diseases decreased from 84.9 to 54.6 per 100 thousand of population. Taking into account the results of the study, it is appropriate to update existing regional preventive programs with emphasis on improving diagnostic of malignant neoplasms and appropriateness of regular preventive examinations of population of the Republic.
Problems of Social Hygiene, Public Health and History of Medicine. 2020;28(6):1362-1366
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The complex diagnostic of deviation in development of children of the first years of life in conditions of polyclinic
Borisova N.A., Larina O.V., Pepik L.A.
Abstract
The comprehensive diagnosis of abnormalities of development of children during the first years of life is one of the most important targets and the first stage of system of early medical care based on the intersectoral interaction of the experts. The health care facilities play paramount role in identifying children at risk, including ones born with signs of perinatal damage of central nervous system. The article presents results of the experimental study of efficiency of common diagnostic methods of development of children during the first years of life in conditions of polyclinic services. The article also proves the necessity of complementing actual diagnostic instruments by new methods of diagnostic based on complex evaluation of main parameters of psychomotor development of children that will result in timely diagnostic and inclusion of children of risk group to the system of early medical care.
Problems of Social Hygiene, Public Health and History of Medicine. 2020;28(6):1367-1373
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The experience of reforming primary health care in conditions of increasing of population average age
Nikolaeva I.V., Zhernakova N.I., Osmanov E.A., Lebedev T.J., Manjakov R.R.
Abstract
The article presents the experience of reforming primary health care in Belgorod Oblast in 2016-2019. In the process of reforming, the original organizational model of new interaction pattern “family doctor - patient - family members”, was developed and implemented. The measures were taken to strengthen material-technical base and manpower potential of primary medical care. The general practitioners offices were positioned within “step accessibility” for patients. The continuous training of family doctors was organized at the workplace. The unified regional medical information system was developed and implemented enabling corporate conference communications, remote consultations, public feedback and remote arrangement of visits of patients to physician. The differentiated approach to remuneration of medical personnel was implemented using key performance indices that permitted to increase salaries and work quality. As a result of the reforms, the percentage of patients under supervision of family doctors increased up to 13%, the number of medical emergency calls decreased up to 3.3% and the number of calls because of illness decreased up to 17%. The mortality of population older than able-bodied age began to decrease and life expectancy reached relevant 74 years in 2019.
Problems of Social Hygiene, Public Health and History of Medicine. 2020;28(6):1374-1379
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On Soviet therapeutic elite: Miron Semenovich Vovsi, the head therapist of the Red Army - portrait without retouch
Borodulin V.I., Banzeljuk E.N., Topoljanskij A.V.
Abstract
The article is devoted to the biography and scientific contribution of Miron Semyonovich Vovsi, the eminent Soviet internist, organizer of army internal medicine. For the first time, the materials of his personal records from the Yuriev (Tartu) University and verified date of his birth are publicly introduced. Miron Semyonovich (Meer Simonovic) Vovsi was born on May 12 (24) 1897, in the township of Kreslavka (actually Kraslava, Latvia). In 1915, he entered the medical faculty of Yuriev (actually Tartu) University. In 1918 he was transferred to the Moscow University. He, after serving as military doctor, studied and worked under the guidance of D. D. Pletnev, I. M. Wiechert and V. F. Zelenin. In 1934, he moved to the Botkin hospital and after defending his doctoral thesis, became the head of the Department of internal medicine in the Central institute of advanced medical training, where he worked for more than 30 years. During the Second World War, he was the chief internist of the Red Army. He was engaged in the organization and improvement of army internal medicine. In 1952, during the so-called “physicians case”, he was arrested and tortured for 5 months. After his release, he returned to teaching, medical and scientific activities. He died in 1960. His major areas of scientific contribution to medicine are nephrology, cardiology and army internal medicine.
Problems of Social Hygiene, Public Health and History of Medicine. 2020;28(6):1380-1385
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The section of physician everyday life at the Pirogov Congresses. Report II. The problems of revision of the medical sanitary legislation
Egorysheva I.V., Chalova V.V.
Abstract
The section of physician everyday life of the Pirogov congresses discussed not only issues related to economic and legal status of physicians. At its sessions, the need for reforming medical and sanitary legislation and expediency of organization of independent Ministry of health care were considered. Also, various ethical problems of medical activity were brought up (responsibility for non-attendance of patient, court of honor, medical secrecy). The loaded social issues such as abolition of abbacinaire and the death penalty were raised.
Problems of Social Hygiene, Public Health and History of Medicine. 2020;28(6):1386-1390
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The problems of sanitary safety of environment in the USSR during the first five-year plans period in 1930s
Poddubny M.V.
Abstract
The article briefly considers the history of solving problems of sanitary environmental protection in the USSR during the first five-year plans in 1930s. The numerous examples from the Fund of the all-Union state sanitary inspection in the State archive of the Russian Federation were involved into consideration of issues of conservation of water in open reservoirs and air quality in cities. The conclusion is made about the inability of sanitary organization to implement assigned tasks of environmental safety due to disregarding of these issues by authorities, lacking of necessary legislative basis, subordinated position of sanitary services and deficiency of funds and manpower.
Problems of Social Hygiene, Public Health and History of Medicine. 2020;28(6):1391-1394
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The organizational forms of the Soviet Mongol cooperation in the area of medicine and health care in 1920s-1930s. Part II.The operation of expeditions of the Narkomzdrav of the RSFSR
Bashkuev V.Y., Ratmanov P.E.
Abstract
The article proceeds to analyze the results of the study of organizational forms of Soviet assistance to the Mongolian People’s Republic in the field of medicine and health care. The characteristics of organization and activities of the first, second, and subsequent medical sanitary expeditions of the Narkomzdrav of the RSFSR in Mongolia. The new archival documents are introduced into scientific circulation, allowing to verify critical assessment of activities of the first expedition under direction of A. A. Frantsuzov presented in in the reports of G. V. Ivitsky, the member of the expedition. The relationship between the second medical sanitary expedition staff, the Mongolian government and the Soviet physicians at Mongolian service are considered in detail. The role of medical sanitary expeditions as special form of Soviet assistance to Mongolia, allowing to resolve at the same time several tasks of local and strategic nature, and their contribution into the development of the Mongolian health care at early stages is highlighted.
Problems of Social Hygiene, Public Health and History of Medicine. 2020;28(6):1395-1400
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