Problems of Social Hygiene, Public Health and History of Medicine

Chief Editor

  • Khabriev Ramil Usmanovich - Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences, DSc in Medicine, DSc in Pharmaceutics, Professor.

Journal founders

  • FSSBI «N.A. Semashko National Research Institute of Public Health»
  • FSBSI Central Research Institute of Organization and Informatization of Health Care of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation


  • Since 1993.
  • Every 2 months, 6 issues per year

Subscription indexes of the journal

  • Catalog "Rospechat" - 73302


  • Scopus
  • Experta Medica Abstract Journals
  • Index Medicus
  • Index to Dental Literature
  • Chemical Abstracts
  • Current Digest of the Russian Press
  • EBSCOhost
  • International Nursing Index
  • PubMed
  • RSCI

Mission of the journal

- to develop the human potential of the Russian science, to combine the efforts of various categories of researchers, pedagogical and scientific intelligentsia, to create and support a single space for scientific communication in the fields of fundamental and applied science in medicine and healthcare, to create conditions for openness and accessibility of the latest scientific achievements to practical workers, students, teachers and everyone who is involved in the development of the Russian and foreign healthcare and medicine.

The journal is intended to familiarize the Russian and foreign scientific and scientific-pedagogical community, as well as doctoral students, graduate students, undergraduates, practicing specialists and other interested people with new scientific results that are significant in various fields of fundamental and applied science.

The purpose of the journal is to popularize and disseminate relevant and advanced knowledge in the development of healthcare and medicine to a wide range of interested citizens.


The objectives of the journal:

  • improving the subject matter and content of the journal, ensuring the unity of the theory and practice of scientific research, the relevance and significance of the published information for the development of scientific and applied knowledge;
  • ensuring a positive image of the Journal and the Russian science in general, promoting an increase in the feedback from authors and readers;
  • ensuring the objectivity and the information content of the published materials, increasing the readership;
  • increasing the efficiency of the publication of scientific articles, as well as the electronic and printing quality of the published Journal.

The journal is registered with the Federal Service for Supervision of Communications, Information Technology and Mass Media (Roskomnadzor) (certificate PI No. FS 77 - 77004 dated 11.10.2019).


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Current Issue

Vol 31, No 1 (2023)

Full Issue

The effect of application of monitoring and training programs on quality of antimicrobial drugs use in high-risk departments
Mingazova E.N., Imankulova A.S., Djumalieva G.A., Sulaimanova D.
The antibiotic resistance as a problem acquired character of pandemic. The WHO included it in top ten global health threats. In low-income countries, the main goal of the WHO global action plan is to control increase of antimicrobial resistance with purpose to improve quality of antibiotics application.This purpose of study was to evaluate effectiveness of integrated program of rational application of antimicrobial drugs to improve quality of medical care in multidisciplinary surgical hospital in the Kyrgyz Republic.The research comprised several stages including establishment of prevalence of infection associated with provision of medical care and implementation of training programs of rational use of antimicrobial drugs to improve quality of medical care.The implementation of comprehensive training and monitoring programs at hospital level made it possible to reduce total consumption of antimicrobial drugs in Defined Daily Doses per 100 Bed-Days (DDD/100BD) by 2.4 times, mainly due to third-generation cephalosporins, and aminoglycosides, macrolides. As a result, financial expenditures for drugs purchase decreased up to 2.7 times. The practical implementation of recommendations of perioperative antibiotic prevention permitted to increase consumption of cephalosporins of first generation. To develop and to implement training and monitoring programs an integrated approach is needed that, taking into account the specifics of particular medical organization and conditions of multidisciplinary interaction. Further research is needed to study application of rational practices of using antimicrobial drugs, preventing occurrence of HAI, controlling increase of antibiotic resistance.
Problems of Social Hygiene, Public Health and History of Medicine. 2023;31(1):5-10
The medicinal support in ambulatory conditions and the integral estimates of public health
Khabriev R.U., Kolomiychenko M.E.
Within the framework of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, goals were formulated, including those targeting to improve quality of life of people all around the world. The task was formulated to ensure universal coverage of health services. In 2019, the United Nations General Assembly noted that at least half of world's population have no access to basic health services. The study developed methodology to carry out comprehensive comparative analysis of values of individual public health indicators and amount of population payments for medications to confirm possibility of applying these indicators to monitor public health, including possibility of international comparisons. The study demonstrated inverse relationship between share of citizens' funds to pay for medications, index of universal health coverage and life expectancy. The stable direct relationship between such indicators as overall mortality rate from non-communicable diseases and likelihood of dying at the age of 30-70 years from any of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes or chronic respiratory diseases.
Problems of Social Hygiene, Public Health and History of Medicine. 2023;31(1):11-15
The rare diseases and orphan medications: Placement in health care of the Russian Federation
Komarov I.A.
The rare diseases are characterized both by relatively small prevalence in population and complexity of medical care support of patients. In this particular case, the legal regulation of medical care takes its particular placement in health care. The uniqueness of rare diseases requires development of special normative legal acts, definitions and treating approaches. One of such approaches are orphan drugs that also are unique, complicated in development and require special legislative regulation. The article presents corresponding legislative terminology in modern Russian health care, actual listings of rare diseases and orphan drugs. The directions to improve current terminology and normative legal regulation are proposed.
Problems of Social Hygiene, Public Health and History of Medicine. 2023;31(1):16-19
The regional provision of population with specialized medical care according to profile of cardiovascular surgery
Naberezhnaya I.B.
The diseases of circulatory system take leading position in structure of mortality. The efficiency of development of scientifically-proved and modern models of medical care support is to be based on data of monitoring of level, dynamics and structure of corresponding pathology. The accessibility and timeliness of high-tech medical care support directly depends on degree of influence of relevant regional characteristics.The purpose of study was to estimate demand and accessibility of specialized high-tech medical care to residents of the Astrakhan Oblast related to leading nosological forms of diseases of circulatory system.The monographic, statistical, logical and system analysis methods were applied. The research was carried out applying continuous methodology and included data from reporting forms № 12 and № 14 in the Astrakhan Oblast in 2010-2019. The Absolute and average values, extensive indicators that model structure as well as methods of dynamic numbers derivation were applied. The mathematical methods based on specialized statistical software STATISTICA 10 were implemented too.The indicator of circulatory system general morbidity decreased up to 8,5% in 2010-2019. The leading positions are taken by cerebrovascular diseases (29,2%), ischemic heart diseases (23,8%) and diseases characterized by increasing of blood pressure (17,8%). The indicator of general morbidity of these nosological forms increased up to 16,9% and primary morbidity up to 43,9%. The average long-term level of prevalence comprised 55,3±1,23%0. At that, specialized medical care within the mentioned direction decreased from 44,9% to 30,0% and implementation of high-tech medical care increased from 2,2% to 4,0%.
Problems of Social Hygiene, Public Health and History of Medicine. 2023;31(1):20-25
Grishina N.K., Perepelova O.V., Timurzieva A.B., Solovyova N.B.
Nowadays, the idea of the patient as the main subject of medical care is being established in the public consciousness. It is around the patient that all types of professional medical activities and all forms of relationships with other subjects of modern health care are organized.In the professional sphere, this idea is seen as a principle of patient focus. In the provision of paid care, this factor acquires special relevance and is largely determined by the compliance of the process and results of the provision of medical care with the expectations of consumers of medical services. In this regard, the study of the expectations of the contingent of people applying for paid medical services to state medical organizations, and the degree of their satisfaction with receiving paid medical care was the purpose of this study.
Problems of Social Hygiene, Public Health and History of Medicine. 2023;31(1):26-32
The pharmacy tourism. Part I. The analysis of state of medicinal support of patients with rare diseases
Ananchenkova P.I., Tonkonog V.V., Timchenko T.N.
In Russia, the orphan diseases for many years are the object of intent attention both of the national legislation and health care system. The lower prevalence of these diseases in population causes predicaments to timely diagnosis, drug provision and medical care. Besides, absence of integrated approach to issues of diagnosis and treatment of rare diseases contribute nothing to fast solving of actual problems in this field. Frequently, impossibility to get necessary course of treatment forces patients with orphan diseases to seek for alternative sources. The article assesses current situation with medications support of patients suffering from diseases included in the list of life-threatening and chronic progressive rare (orphan) diseases that result in shortening life-span or disability and diseases included in the Federal Program “The 14 high-cost nosologies”. The issues of keeping record of patients and financing medications purchase are touched upon. The study results identified problems of organization of medication support of patients with orphan diseases associated with complexity of accounting their number and absence of integral system of preferential medication support.
Problems of Social Hygiene, Public Health and History of Medicine. 2023;31(1):33-43
The problems of development of medical health-improving tourism in modern conditions
Agalarova L.S., Rozanova T.P., Stytsiuk R.Y., Tavakov A.A.
The analysis of main approaches to determining essence of health-improving tourism in works of national scientists and researchers is presented. The conclusions are made that the most widespread classification of health-improving tourism is its division into medical and health-improving tourism. The medical tourism includes such its types as medical and sanatorium-health resort, and health-improving tourism covers balneologic, SPA-tourism, Wellness-tourism. The difference between medical and health-improving tourism is determined in order to regulate received services. The author's structure of medical and health-improving services, types of tourism and specialized organizations is developed. The analysis of supply and demand for health-improving tourism in 2014-2020 is presented. The main trends of development of health-improving segment in context of such its directions as increasing of SPA and Wellness industry, development of medical tourism, increasing of return on health tourism are formulated. The factors constraining development and reducing competitiveness of health-improving tourism in Russia are identified and structured.
Problems of Social Hygiene, Public Health and History of Medicine. 2023;31(1):44-50
The awareness of primary health care physicians about methods of evaluation of risks of stroke
Manoilov A.E., Markina A.Y.
The assessment of prevalence of acute cerebral circulation disorders in persons with arterial hypertension, together with study of awareness of primary health care physicians about methods of assessing risk of stroke, allows to judge effectiveness of measures preventing acute cerebral circulation disorders and to outline further ways preventing cerebrovascular complications of hypertension.The purpose of study was to investigate morbidity of acute cerebral circulation disorders and awareness of primary care physicians about clinical and instrumental methods assessing risk of stroke in persons with arterial hypertension.Materials and methods included official statistical materials on morbidity of intracerebral bleeding and cerebral infarction in population of Russia, the Chelyabinsk Oblast in 2008-2020, totals of survey of internists and emergency physicians in six regions of Russia.It was established that morbidity of intracerebral bleeding and cerebral infarction in 2008-2020 in the Chelyabinsk Oblast has not changed, while morbidity of intracerebral bleeding and brain infarction in Russia significantly (p<0.05) increased. At the same time, poor awareness of internists about clinical and instrumental criteria of assessing risk of stroke was revealed.The conclusion is made that stabilization of morbidity of acute cerebral circulation disorders in the Chelyabinsk Oblast, increasing of morbidity in Russia are combined with poor awareness of physicians about clinical and instrumental diagnostic of risk of development of stroke.
Problems of Social Hygiene, Public Health and History of Medicine. 2023;31(1):51-54
The social portrait of child with disability as conceived by population of the Euro-Arctic region of Russia
Zhigunova G.V.
The problem of perceiving person with disability as “atypical” individual is one of the most acute in modern society. The stereotypes and fears existing in conceptions of citizens regarding this category are negatively reflected in current intensive inclusive processes. The most negatively negative conceptions about persons with disabilities affect children population, aggravating processes of socialization and inclusion in social practices inherent to their “norm-typical” peers. The survey of population of the Euro-Arctic region, carried out by the author in 2022, to identify characteristics of perception of children with disabilities, established that negative perceptions prevail in assessments of children with disabilities. The results demonstrated that, basically, disabled subjects are perceived through assessments of their personal and behavioral characteristics, and not through the social conditions of their life. The results of the study made it possible to conclude that medical model of disability significantly impact on citizens' perceptions of persons with disabilities. The phenomenon of disability itself can be attributed to factors contributing to negative labeling of its subjects. The conclusions and results of the study can be used to develop positive image of disabled perdsons in the Russian socium in process of further development of inclusive processes.
Problems of Social Hygiene, Public Health and History of Medicine. 2023;31(1):55-59
The effect of applying clinical organizational telemedicine technology management of anti-tuberculous care on dynamics of tuberculosis morbidity and mortality
Kostin A.A., Tsvetkov A.I., Abramov A.Y., Kicha D.I., Goloshchapov-Aksenov R.S.
The tuberculosis is the most important medical and social problem among globally dangerous epidemiological phenomena. the tuberculosis ranks 9th place in the structure of mortality and disability of population and 1st place among causes of death from single infectious agent.The purpose of the study was to analyze dynamics of total morbidity and mortality because of tuberculosis against the background of the implementation of telemedicine clinical organizational technology in phthisiology care 2007-2021.The official Regional and Federal data of Rosstat for 2007-2021 were used. The indicators of total morbidity and mortality of population caused by tuberculosis in the Sverdlovsk Oblast were established. The research methods were content analysis, dynamic series analysis, graphical analysis, statistical differences analysis.In the Sverdlovsk Oblast, the morbidity and mortality of tuberculosis exceeded national average indicators by 1.2-1.5 times. In 2007-2021, as a result of implementation of clinical organizational telemedicine technology in managing phthisiology care, total morbidity and mortality of population caused by tuberculosis decreased up to 2.275 and 2.97 times respectively. The rate of decrease of analyzed epidemiological indicators generally correlated with national average data with statistical validity of difference t≥2.In regions with unfavorable epidemiological indicators of tuberculosis, application of innovative technologies in management of clinical organizational processes is required. The development and implementation of clinical organizational telemedicine technology for managing regional phthisiology care contributes to significant reduction of morbidity and mortality of tuberculosis and optimizes sanitary and epidemiological well-being.
Problems of Social Hygiene, Public Health and History of Medicine. 2023;31(1):60-64
The psychological and environment risk factors of development of breast cancer in women residing in industrial megalopolis and rural locality
Tsiring D.A., Pakhomova Y.N., Ponomareva I.V., Sergienko E.S., Vazhenin A.V., Mironchenko M.N.
The breast cancer hold leading position in the structure of oncological morbidity of women worldwide. The purpose of the study is to analyze contribution of psychological and environmental factors to risk of development of breast cancer in women residing in industrial metropolis and rural locality. The actuality of the study is conditioned by acquisition of new knowledge about risk factors of breast cancer. The study covered psychological factors (basic beliefs, life orientations, locus of control, coping behavior strategies, subjective assessment of quality of life, subjective age indicator, personal helplessness-independence, resilience) and environmental factor (place of urban of rural residence of women with breast cancer). The study established that in women residing in industrial metropolis the psychological risk factors are reduced indicators of basic beliefs, of quality of life and of resilience, rare application of coping strategy “Escape-Avoidance”, external locus of control. Alternatively, in women residing in rural areas, psychological risk factors for breast cancer are rare application of coping strategies, reduced quality of life indicators, increased vital activity, internal level of subjective control and personal helplessness. The study results can be included in development of personalized breast cancer screening protocols and as well as considered in assessing risk of development of disease when classifying women by breast cancer risk groups.
Problems of Social Hygiene, Public Health and History of Medicine. 2023;31(1):65-71
The trends of dynamics and characteristics of structure of population ovary cancer disability in the Chechen Republic
Idrisova L.S., Suleimanov E.A., Shurgaya M.A., Puzin S.N.
The article presents the results of analysis of issue of disability because of ovarian cancer in female population of the Chechen Republic. The object of study was total number of women, for the first time and repeatedly recognized as disabled ones. The analysis was applied to three age groups (the young, the middle aged and the elderly) in 2014-2020. It is established that dynamics of disability was characterized by negative trends of increasing of number of the disabled. The clear-cut age differentiation was revealed:the elderly disabled predominated. The study established that the disabled suffer of persistent malfunction of blood circulation system and of immune system that resulted in such life activity limitations as moving, self-service and work functions. The characteristics of structure of ovarian cancer disability according its severity were established. The disabled with second group of disability prevailed in all age groups. At that, percentage of women with first group of disability was higher in the middle-aged disabled. The results of the study testify actuality of optimization of onco-gynecological screening of female population for the purpose of early detection of risk factors and diagnosis of malignant process at initial stages of development. This is rational way to organ-preserving treatment and medical and social prevention of primary ovarian cancer disability. The results of the study can consider as scientific practical base for both targeted routing of preventive and therapeutic and rehabilitation measures.
Problems of Social Hygiene, Public Health and History of Medicine. 2023;31(1):72-78
The transformation of sources providing medical information in male youths of military age in decade dynamics
Sogiyainen A.A., Chicherin L.P., Shchepin V.O.
In 2021, according to results of survey of citizens of military age, 71.5% of respondents considered their state of health as satisfactory or poor. The negative dynamics was noted by 41.6% and 64.4% stated about absence of chronic diseases. At that, according to Rosstat data, up to 72% of young males have chronic pathology of various organs and systems that indicates insufficient information about health status of respondents. The analysis was applied concerning ways of obtaining medical information by young males aged 17-20 years in the Moscow Oblast in 2012 (n=423), 2017 (n=568) and 2021 (n=814). The sampling of young males participating in survey was 1,805 respondents. It was established that in in the Moscow region main share of medical-oriented information is drawn by young males aged 17-20 years from the Internet and social networks (more than 72%). The medical and pedagogical personnel provide only 4.4% of this information. Over the past 10 years, the role of schools and polyclinics in the formation of healthy lifestyle has decreased by more than in 6 times.
Problems of Social Hygiene, Public Health and History of Medicine. 2023;31(1):79-81
The comparative evaluation of accessibility of stomatological care for municipal and rural population of the Belgorod Oblast
Kopytov A.A., Stepanova Y.S., Ovchinnikov I.V., Volobueva E.V.
At the actual stage of becoming of Russian stomatology, the problem of sustainable development of rural stomatological care, as system of local formations of complex medical social nature belongs to national priorities and is considered as one of most important directions of public social policy. The stomatological health of rural population is to be considered as indicator of national stomatological health. This is confirmed by spatial structure: rural territories (inhabited territories outside cities) cover 2/3 of territory of the Russian Federation with population of 37.3 million or 1/4 of total population. The spatial structure of the Belgorod Oblast is reliably similar to the all-Russian one. The number of national and foreign studies proved that accessibility, quality and timeliness of insurance (state) stomatology is lower for rural residents that can be considered as one of signs of social inequality. Depending on the social economic status of region, signs of social inequality in the stomatology field are conditioned by broad spectrum of factors. Some of them are discussed in the article.
Problems of Social Hygiene, Public Health and History of Medicine. 2023;31(1):82-87
The combination of moral and law norms in regulation of medical activity
Sergeev V.V., Shmelev I.A.
The article considers proposals developed according results of the study and targeted on improving social regulation of medical activities on basis of complex institutional approach. The complexity of approach lies in the fact that in regulation of public relations in health care opposition between norms of law and norms of morality is not allowed because in medicine they inter-condition and inter-complement each other. The institutional aspect of approach is reflected in tight interaction of moral and legal foundations, as well as in mechanisms of implementation of social standardization of specific sphere of medical activity. The formalized model of integrated institutional approach is presented. The importance of bioethics, in which principle of inter-complementarity of morality and law is realized to its maximum extent is emphasized. The significance of structural principles of bioethics that characterize totality of stable relationships of subjects of medical intervention is highlighted. The emphasis is made on interrelation between principles of bioethics and medical ethics, on norms of medical ethics, that largely determine content of professional duty of physician. The norms of medical ethics are grouped into three systems: “doctor-patient”, “doctor-colleague” and “doctor-society” that are contained in international ethical documents and “The Code of Professional Ethics for Physicians” of the Russian Federation. The importance of internal and external mechanisms of implementation of complex social regulation of medical activity is marked.
Problems of Social Hygiene, Public Health and History of Medicine. 2023;31(1):88-92
The evaluation of opinions of residents of the Northern Caucasus Okrug about healthy municipal planning issues
Amlaev K.R., Karabakhtsyan G.A., Khripunova A.A., Dahkilgova K.T.
The article presents the results of examination of opinions of residents of the North Caucasus Federal District concerning healthy urban planning issues. The most residents of large cities are satisfied with infrastructure of their city, while residents of small towns are less satisfied with it. The prioritization of importance of solving various problems of urban life, opinions of residents are not solidary and differ depending on age and place of residence of respondents. For example, construction of playgrounds is a priority for residents of reproductive age from small towns. Only one out of ten of respondents would like to participate in strategy of development of their cities of residence.
Problems of Social Hygiene, Public Health and History of Medicine. 2023;31(1):93-97
The World Health Organization: Project of novels in the field of controlling international medical sanitary regulations
Bogovskaia E.A., Alexandrova O.Y., Zudin A.B.
The article considers draft of new edition of the International Health Regulations. The possible risks associated with changing of the document are evaluated from perspective of member countries, in whose territories occur or supposedly occur emergency situations in field of public health having international importance.
Problems of Social Hygiene, Public Health and History of Medicine. 2023;31(1):98-105
The hospital substitution form of home medical care of population of Tte Russian Federation: the analysis of functioning
Shlyafer S.I.
The important direction of the National Project “Health Care” are improvement of primary health care system, including introduction of hospital-replacing technologies.The purpose of the study is to evaluate functioning of hospital-substituting form of home medical care (home hospitals) to population of the Russian Federation in 2006-2020.The normative legal documents regulating activities of stationary-substituting form of home medical care (home hospitals) for adults and children, reporting forms of sectoral statistical observation № 14ds for 2006-2018 were analyzed. In 2019-2020, unified data on functioning of day hospitals and home hospitals and composition of patients treated there of medical organizations providing medical care on out-patient basis was filled in form № 14ds. The in-depth analysis permitted to extract information about activities of home hospitals for adults and children and to study their functioning in dynamics for 15 years. The content analysis, statistical and analytical methods were applied.The examination of data for 2006-2020 established increasing of number of treated adult patients in home hospitals up to 27.9% and children up to 15.0%.The distribution of the number of treated adults and children in hospitals at home per 1000 of the corresponding population by subjects indicates their significant fluctuation.For 15 years, it has been established that in the structure of treated adult patients, the proportion of people with diseases of the circulatory system has decreased from 62.2 to 31.5%, the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue - from 11.7 to 7.4%; in children - with respiratory diseases from 81.9 to 63.4%, some infectious and parasitic diseases - from 7.7 to 3.0%, diseases of the digestive system - from 3.6 to 3.2%.In the country for 2019-2020 in hospitals at home, the number of treated adults significantly increased by 1.8 times, children - by 2.3 times, the composition of those treated has changed, which is associated with the treatment of patients with a new coronavirus infection COVID-19 in them under conditions re-profiling of the majority of medical organizations into infectious diseases hospitals.
Problems of Social Hygiene, Public Health and History of Medicine. 2023;31(1):106-111
The Renaissance of Russian pharmaceutical market (2000-2004). Report II. The Pharma servants of Russia
Zatravkin S.N., Vishlenkova E.A., Ignatiev V.G.
The article (the third one of authors cycle of historical studies of medication supply and pharmaceutical business) examines period of economic renaissance of the Russian pharmaceutical market in the first years of third millennium. The state of market according data of Russian analytical agencies, medical periodicals and recollections of participants is considered. The article consists of three reports. In the first report the issue was the “field players” of pharmaceutical market, and in the second one - all the personnel serving market game, making it possible, their reflections on their new, post-Soviet experience of life in private business.
Problems of Social Hygiene, Public Health and History of Medicine. 2023;31(1):112-119
The international cooperation in organizing penicillin production in the USSR
Sherstneva E.V.
The article considers interaction of the USSR with foreign scientists and international organizations in the process of mastering production of penicillin and establishment of penicillin industry. The analysis of archival documents demonstrated that despite influence of unfavorable foreign policy factors, various forms of this interaction were one of the decisive conditions of establishment of large-scale antibiotic production in the USSR by the end of the 1940s.
Problems of Social Hygiene, Public Health and History of Medicine. 2023;31(1):120-124
The stomatological care of schoolchildren in the Soviet Russia in 1920s: Succession of ideas
Plotnichenko P.K., Ratmanov P.E.
The article considers historical interaction between the Soviet Russia and the Weimar Republic related to prevention of caries in children in 1920s and the role of P. G. Dauge in it. The methodology of German Professor A. Kantorovich with minor alterations was adopted to be applied in organization of dental care of schoolchildren in the RSFSR. In the Soviet Russia, the practical implementation of planned oral cavity sanation in children started on a national scale only in second half of the 1920s. It was caused by skeptical attitude of dentists to methodology of “planned sanation” in conditions of the Soviet Russia.
Problems of Social Hygiene, Public Health and History of Medicine. 2023;31(1):125-129
“Whether the Lord putted Moscow and neighbouring cities empty?”: Moscow pest of 1654
Borisov S.N., Lipich T.I., Penskoi V.V.
The first ten years of the reign of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich were distinguished by extreme turbulence. The unsuccessful actions of the “government” of the boyar Morozov provoked chain of city riots which reached their apogee in famous “Salt Riot” in the capital. After that, religious feuding began that in near future resulted in the Schism. Afterwards, Russia, after long hesitation, entered the war with the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth that as it turned out, prolonged 13 years. Finally, in 1654, after long break, the plague again visited Russia. The plague pestilence of 1654-1655 was relatively transient (it began in summer and gradually faded away with the onset of winter), however very deadly and shook both the Russian state and Russian society to the ground. It disrupted habitual regular way of life and unsettled all and everything. The authors propose original version of origin of this epidemic and reconstruct its course and consequences on the basis of evidence of contemporaries and extant documents.
Problems of Social Hygiene, Public Health and History of Medicine. 2023;31(1):130-139
The Irkutsk department of the Society of struggle with contagious diseases: history of establishment, structure, tasks, sources of financial appropriations
Gaidarov G.M., Alekseevskaya T.I., Demidova T.V., Sofronov O.Y.
The article considers chronologies of events of the opening in the city of Irkutsk of the Irkutsk branch of the Society of struggle with contagious diseases, located in St.Petersburg. It is emphasized that socially necessary need for protection against contagious diseases contributed to organization of the Branch of the Society of Struggle with Contagious Diseases. The history of organization of the structure of the Society's branch, the criteria of recruiting the founding members, collaborating members and competing members, including description of their duties are explored. The mechanism of formation of financial allocations and the state of available capital owned by the Branch of the Society are studied. The structure of financial expenses is demonstrated. The role of benefactors and donations collected for needs of struggle with contagious diseases are emphasized. The correspondence of well-known honorary citizens of Irkutsk concerning issues of increasing the number of donations is presented. The objectives and tasks of the Branch of the Society related to struggle with contagious diseases are considered. The necessity of spreading health culture among population to prevent occurrence of contagious diseases is demonstrated. The conclusion is made about progressive role of the Branch of the Society in the Irkutsk Guberniya.
Problems of Social Hygiene, Public Health and History of Medicine. 2023;31(1):140-148
The review of the book “The Soviet health care at international arena in 1920-1940: between ‘soft force’ and propaganda (the Western Europe and the USA)” by P. E. Ratmanov
Pivovarov N.I., Tikhonov V.V.
The review considers the book “The Soviet health care at international arena in 1920-1940: between “soft force” and propaganda (the Western Europe and the USA)” by Ratmanov P. E. The author, on the basis of rich range of historical sources for the first time introduced into scientific turnover, minutely examines phenomenon of the presentation of “The Semashko model” in the international arena. The main array of events described in the book is chronologically divided by two periods - the 1920s and the 1930s. Each of these periods is characterized not only by various forms of presentation of the Soviet health care, but also by directions of cooperation with partner countries. The monograph demonstrably shows that effectiveness of the Soviet medical propaganda was affected by composition of the audience, place and time. Besides, interest in the West to the Soviet model in many ways depended on personal sympathy and political beliefs of representatives of medical community. The author of the book considers the promotion of samples of the Soviet model of medicine as “trade of the future”, i.e. demonstration of common values of the ideology of the Soviet health care, its local successes and promises of major achievements in the future. The monograph is to be recognized as an important step in the study both of the history of scientific medical diplomacy and the role of science in cultural agenda of the Soviet state.
Problems of Social Hygiene, Public Health and History of Medicine. 2023;31(1):149-152

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