Problems of Social Hygiene, Public Health and History of Medicine

Chief Editor

  • Khabriev Ramil Usmanovich - Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences, DSc in Medicine, DSc in Pharmaceutics, Professor.

Journal founders

  • FSBSI National Research Institute of Public Health named after N.А. Semashko
  • FSBSI Central Research Institute of Organization and Informatization of Health Care of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation


  • Since 1993.
  • Every 2 months, 6 issues per year

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  • Catalog "Rospechat" - 73302


  • Scopus
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  • Chemical Abstracts
  • Current Digest of the Russian Press
  • EBSCOhost
  • International Nursing Index
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  • RSCI

Mission of the journal

- to develop the human potential of the Russian science, to combine the efforts of various categories of researchers, pedagogical and scientific intelligentsia, to create and support a single space for scientific communication in the fields of fundamental and applied science in medicine and healthcare, to create conditions for openness and accessibility of the latest scientific achievements to practical workers, students, teachers and everyone who is involved in the development of the Russian and foreign healthcare and medicine.

The journal is intended to familiarize the Russian and foreign scientific and scientific-pedagogical community, as well as doctoral students, graduate students, undergraduates, practicing specialists and other interested people with new scientific results that are significant in various fields of fundamental and applied science.

The purpose of the journal is to popularize and disseminate relevant and advanced knowledge in the development of healthcare and medicine to a wide range of interested citizens.


The objectives of the journal:

  • improving the subject matter and content of the journal, ensuring the unity of the theory and practice of scientific research, the relevance and significance of the published information for the development of scientific and applied knowledge;
  • ensuring a positive image of the Journal and the Russian science in general, promoting an increase in the feedback from authors and readers;
  • ensuring the objectivity and the information content of the published materials, increasing the readership;
  • increasing the efficiency of the publication of scientific articles, as well as the electronic and printing quality of the published Journal.

The journal is registered with the Federal Service for Supervision of Communications, Information Technology and Mass Media (Roskomnadzor) (certificate PI No. FS 77 - 77004 dated 11.10.2019).


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Current Issue

Vol 30, No 3 (2022)

Full Issue

The phase dynamics of the COVID-19 pandemic: a systematic analysis of 213 Countries and Territories
Teppone M.
The study was carried out to evaluate the dynamics of monthly numbers of cases, deaths, tests and case fatality ratio worldwide during three phases of the COVID-19 pandemic.Material and methods: Twenty-three sets of databases, dated the 22nd of each month from January 2020 to November 2021, for 213 countries were collected from the Worldometer website. The number of cases, deaths, tests, case fatality ratio, infection fatality ratio, etc. were counted for various periods of time for each of the 213 countries, then the results related to different periods of time were compared.The analysis of main epidemiological parameters resulted in division of three phases of the global pandemic evolution. The first phase (23.01.20-22.07.20), the second phase (23.07.20-22.01.21) and the third phase (23.01.21-22.07.21) were different in terms of the number of tests performed, new cases and mortality due to COVID-19. By the end of second phase, the worldwide statistics indicated imminent end of the pandemic, but the third phase was characterized by sudden rise in the number of new cases and deaths that could not be explained rationally. The most dramatic evolution of epidemic curve occurred in the countries where physicians had successfully confronted COVID-19 during the first two phases of the pandemic.Despite the decrease in the overall numbers deaths during the latest months analyzed, additional study is necessary to identify the cause of increasing in the number of new cases and deaths during the third phase of the pandemic.Presumably, there are several causes of negative evolution of the current pandemic, including over-reliance on polymerase chain reaction tests, application of non-specialized premises for quarantine and treatment, non-professional management, following therapeutic protocols applied in countries with high number of deaths, ignoring preventive treatment, and decreasing in mass and individual immunity.It can be suggested that the use of drugs modulating T-cell immunity is necessary, and preventive and therapeutic protocols should be changed from the 'standard' to 'personalized' types.
Problems of Social Hygiene, Public Health and History of Medicine. 2022;30(3):347-355
The COVID-19 Vaccination program and barriers of vaccination: а Review and comparison. Evidence from Iran and Russia
Ali S., Mehdi A., Ryazantsev S.V.
The vaccination is a global issue of controlling infection agents and non-infectious diseases that require modern technologies and scientific knowledge. During the COVID-19 pandemic the work is continuously implemented to control the situation. The vaccination can affects controlling outbreaks all around the world. Besides, applying several types of vaccines in various countries to control second peak of the pandemic can be considered as significant factor that positively impacts host immune response. However, there are different barriers to vaccination programs worldwide in areas of economy, technology, politics, demography, psychology, especially in countries with low economic level. Although vaccination program started in many countries, developing mass immunity in society is essential for pandemic termination. Iran and Russia also are involved in COVID-19 pandemic disease since January 2020, and they are still working to achieve mass immunity. The actual study was carried out to compare vaccination extent between Russia and Iran countries to evaluate vaccination impact on the COVID-19 pandemic and to review some main factors that influence vaccination to understand main barriers of vaccination in both countries.
Problems of Social Hygiene, Public Health and History of Medicine. 2022;30(3):356-363
The transition to remote education format in medical university: opinion of students about transformation of education process at the outset of COVID-19 pandemic
Reshetnikov A.V., Prisyazhnaya N.V., Vyatkina N.Y.
The COVID-19 pandemic came out as an imperative of large-scale transformations in higher education system, including higher medical school. At that, introduction of self-isolation regime in the spring 2020 highlighted the task of organizing education in remote format with maintaining education quality. The article presents results of sociological survey with purpose of studying perception of students of medical university of transition to remote learning format at the COVID-19 pandemic outset. The majority of respondents perceived remote learning format as an emergency measure to maintain continuity of education process, that, however, cannot completely replace full-time practice-oriented teaching “at the bedside of the patient”. Understanding the special tasks of training medical specialist required new solutions from higher school and additional efforts from all subjects of educational process - restructuring organizational infrastructure ensuring communication of teaching staff and students, solving organizational problems of access to educational content, adapting to practice of digital medical education, expanding use of AR, VR, mixed reality and simulation learning technologies. The students, highly assessing quality of digital content, noted difficulties of self-organization in “home” format due to a lot of distracting factors (family, domestic life, etc.) that had key impact on motivation of their learning activities. Nevertheless, among respondents of medical university, a number of students formed subgroup that considering personal experience of remote learning assumed that this format is actual and effective and allows one to fully master university curriculum. The transition to remote learning format in university as emergency measure during pandemic, will obviously be consolidated as an invariant standard of organizing educational process.
Problems of Social Hygiene, Public Health and History of Medicine. 2022;30(3):364-370
The information technologies in organization of functioning of primary health care section in rendering support to patients with COVID-19
Mokhnacheva T.E., Monogarova Y.Y., Varakina Z.L.
The article presents analysis of the Arkhangelsk City Clinical Hospital № 7 capacity and medical personnel staffing. The new coronavirus infection incidence, cases of temporary disability due to disease and quarantine of COVID-19 were analyzed in the Solombalsky district of Arkhangelsk. The issues of primary health care support and readiness of medical personnel to work with medical information systems in in conditions of COVID-19 pandemic were studied. The management decision-makings improving quality and accessibility of medical services using information technologies are demonstrated.
Problems of Social Hygiene, Public Health and History of Medicine. 2022;30(3):371-376
The social human health as a complex interdisciplinary problem
Egorychev A.M., Fomina S.N., Tsvetov S.V., Aliev S.I.
The preservation and promotion of population social health is one of actual global problems worldwide. The various phenomena currently associated with coronavirus pandemic, threats to individual human physical and mental health put the whole world on dangerous brink of self-destruction that actualize studying of human vital forces and human social health. The versatility of this problem is based on unity of personal vital forces, social health and social values where human is to be the highest value of state social policy. The article represents analysis of scientific publications, proposes genuine concept of harmonious personality modeling and substantiates need in studying human social health and individual vitality as complex interdisciplinary problem.
Problems of Social Hygiene, Public Health and History of Medicine. 2022;30(3):377-382
The medical social characteristic of disabled children residing in nursing homes of the Russian Federation
Lazurenko S.B., Fisenko A.P., Terletskaya R.N., Grigorieva N.A.
The purpose of the study is to identify and systematize urgent problems and proposals for implementing innovations in medical and social care of disabled children in nursing homes.The analysis of official data and results of epidemiological study concerning disabled children aged 0-17 years resigning in nursing homes permitted to identify dynamics of changes in age structure of observed contingent, causes of disability and accessibility and quality of medical care and psychological pedagogical assistance. It was established that total number of disabled children living in nursing homes and their part among all disabled children is stable. The most common pathology and cause of disability are mental and behavioral disorders, diseases of nervous system, congenital anomalies, deformities and chromosomal abnormalities, diseases of eye and its adnexa. The insufficient accessibility and low quality of various types of medical care (preventive examination, specialized, hospital, rehabilitation and palliative care) is established. At organizing education of children, difficulties occurred due to lacking of special conditions and technical means, availability and qualification of specialists of psychological and pedagogical profile. In most cases, inmates reside in buildings with high technical wear and impossibility of complex implementation of state programs requirements.The article presents set of proposals, including consolidation of subordination of medical support to regional medical centers, introduction of modern education technologies for disabled children, improvement of competence of psychological and pedagogical personnel, external audit of technical conditions and facilities of nursing homes, widespread application of potential of non-governmental organizations.
Problems of Social Hygiene, Public Health and History of Medicine. 2022;30(3):383-393
The life quality of the disabled as a result of diseases of peripheral nervous system
Berg A.V., Penina G.O.
The article considers results of studying the quality of life of disabled patients because of diseases of peripheral nervous system. The significantly low level of indices of quality of life self-assessment was established on all scales of SF-36 questionnaire that are from 3 to 7 times lower than similar indices in population of Russia. The assessment of quality of life of disabled patients is necessary to determine effectiveness of applied rehabilitation measures and application of obtained results in planning further rehabilitation and habilitation activities.
Problems of Social Hygiene, Public Health and History of Medicine. 2022;30(3):394-396
The disability of patients with amputation of upper and lower extremities in The Russian Federation
Grinin V.M., Shestemirova E.I.
The article presents characteristics of examined disabled patients with amputations of upper and lower extremities. The purpose of the study was to investigate demand of disability status in respondents (on gender, age, disability causes, amputation level, capability of moving in home conditions).
Problems of Social Hygiene, Public Health and History of Medicine. 2022;30(3):397-401
The analysis of impact of medical social and economic factors on regional coloproctological morbidity of adult population
Lisichkin A.L.
Actually, there is constant increase of number of patients with coloproctological diseases, including corresponding malignant neoplasms. At that, issues of improving organization of specialized care of patients of this kind still remain unresolved in many positions.The retrospective analysis of regional coloproctological morbidity of adult population was carried out as exemplified by the Perm Kray. To forecast onset of colorectal cancer multiple logistic regression analysis was applied. To assess relationship of particular factors and morbidity, the Spearman rank correlation method was implemented. The ROC-analysis was applied using MedCalc software.The study established strong relationship between the presence of colorectal cancer and colon polyps (87.2%, Somers' D = 0.868). According to ROC analysis data, colon polyps are risk factor of development of colorectal cancer in 93.4% of cases. The pronounced relationship is demonstrated for presence of colon polyps and colorectal cancer detectability (OR 225.85, CI 61.5 - 829.15, p <0.0001).The results of analysis of regional coloproctological morbidity of adult population in 45 municipalities of the Perm Kray testify significant variability of territorial features. The study revealed that level of coloproctological morbidity in municipalities depends on such indices as provision of physicians and hospital beds and average salary. The study results testify necessity to consider territorial characteristics of Perm Kray in planning complex coloproctological care of population.The identified interrelationships of population morbidity, activities and resource support are to be taken into account in planning organizational measures to modernize treatment and preventive care of coloproctological patients, including early diagnosis of coloproctological cancer in combination with other measures to reduce overall level of coloproctological morbidity on territory of Perm Kray and to improve quality of life of patients.
Problems of Social Hygiene, Public Health and History of Medicine. 2022;30(3):402-406
The natality and mortality of population in various social economic regions of the Far North
Lebedeva U.M., Sadykova R.N., Lebedeva А.М., Mingazova E.N.
The issues of improving demographic situation in Russia at large and in its particular subjects are of special actuality. Therefore, the study was carried out concerning actual characteristics of population natural movement with consideration of regional specifics of the northern and eastern territories of the country. Nowadays, in Far North regions, Arctic and Sub-Arctic territories, Far East territories that occupy almost 2/3 of the area of the Russian Federation reside less than 10% of total population. By virtue of immense industrial and resource potential of these regions, the issue of natural population increase in the northern and arctic territories is of strategic importance for the Russian Federation. The entire territory of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) is included in the Far North regions. The demographic situation in this territory is determined both by processes of national level and specific climatic, economic and other conditions specific for northern and arctic territories.The study was carried out to comparatively analyze indices of population natural movement in various social economic regions of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) such as arctic, agricultural and industrial, including Yakutsk.It was established that most unfavorable demographic situation from point of view of processes of population natural reproduction is observed in industrial regions, where lowest natality indices are observed at high mortality rates. The highest natality indices were noted in agricultural regions. The highest mortality indices were specific for Arctic and industrial regions and the lowest ones for Yakutsk. Since 2014, occurs slowdown of natural population increase in all groups of regions, while in industrial areas in 2006 and 2020, natural population loss was recorded. The revealed differences in medical and demographic indices are a basis of implementation of regional programs targeted to development of social economic living conditions and improvement of demographic policy in regions of the Far North.
Problems of Social Hygiene, Public Health and History of Medicine. 2022;30(3):407-414
The abortion and contraceptive behavior: results of the all-Russian Research
Rostovskaya T.K., Shabunova A.A., Knyazkova E.A., Mehdi A.
The problem of abortion is actual in all spheres of public life. Despite the fact that in Russia, according to the Ministry of Health, the number of abortions has decreased by 30% over the past five years, there is demand from society and public authorities to strengthen the national demographic security, to search for corresponding reserves and to strengthen positive dynamics of demographic indices on permanent long-term basis. The abortions significantly and negatively affect birth rate and woman health. To make proper managerial decisions in this area requires analyzing such complex social phenomenon as abortion behavior and its alternatives, including contraceptive behavior based on family planning technologies.The purpose of study is to analyze characteristics of abortive and contraceptive behavior and their relationship with matrimonial and reproductive behavior in Russia to strengthen national demographic security.The official public data of Rosstat, Minzdrav of Russia, etc. was used. Also the data of the All-Russian sociological study “Demographic well-being of Russia” was attracted. The methodology included questionnaire survey in late 2019 - early 2020 carried out in 10 Subjects of the Russian Federation: Moscow, Republic of Bashkortostan, Republic of Tatarstan, Vologda Oblast, Volgograd Oblast, Ivanovo Oblast, etc. The total sampling consisted of 5 616 respondents. The study implemented such scientific research methods as: analysis, synthesis, generalization, statistical analysis, sociological analysis.The state policy implementation related to the decrees of the President of the Russian Federation “On measures to implement the Demographic Policy of the Russian Federation” (2012): “On national goals and strategic objectives of the development of the Russian Federation for the period up to 2024” (2018, national project “Demography”), Government orders “On approval of the Concept of State family Policy in the Russian Federation for the period up to 2025” (2014), “On the basics of State youth policy of the Russian Federation for the period up to 2025” (2014), etc. On national level, it resulted in decreasing of the number of abortions and increasing attention of society and the public authorities to problems of the family. in Russia, since 2007, the absolute number of abortions has been declining, and from 2015 to the present, the absolute number of abortions has decreased below the millionth value. The leaders in positive rate of abortions decreasing are the North Caucasus, the Central and Southern Federal Okrugs. The higher rates of abortions remain In the Far Eastern, Siberian and Ural Federal Okrugs. It is established that abortion and reproductive behavior depends on aging of motherhood, low contraceptive culture at early start of sexual life and various social economic factors. A significant part of Russian population is characterized by low awareness of reproduction issues and contraceptives. The study revealed certain relationship between contraceptive and matrimonial and reproductive behavior. The hypothesis was confirmed for the Republics of Bashkortostan and Tatarstan. The additional research in this area is required to identify effective measures to fully implement demographic potential of the Russian family. Even though the official statistics of Russia indicate positive trends in population abortion behavior, abortions make up significant part of reproductive losses. For majority of Russians, abortion remains acceptable mean of regulating childbearing. Russia has the highest rate of abortions in the age ranges of 30-34 and 35-39 years.In Russia, improvement of medical and contraceptive literacy and formation of responsible health self-attitude will increase quality of life, implement population's demographic potential and improve demographic security.
Problems of Social Hygiene, Public Health and History of Medicine. 2022;30(3):415-422
The urban transport as social economic health determinant
Karabakhtsyan G.A.
The article considers role of transport as one of social economic health determinants. The aspects having positive and negative impact on health of population are presented. The necessity to design and plan transport systems considering population needs is postulated. It is emphasized that main priority in improving health is transition from using cars to ecological types of transport, for example, bicycles. The 8 concrete measures of improving health of urban residents are described, including increase of accessibility of points of destination, management of cars demand by reducing their accessibility and increasing parking costs, design of transport networks convenient for pedestrians and cyclists, achieve optimal population density, reduce distance to public transport and increase attractiveness of active modes of movement, etc. The strategies encouraging use of public transport are outlined.
Problems of Social Hygiene, Public Health and History of Medicine. 2022;30(3):423-427
The actual aspects of medical health and life insurance of members of ships' crews
Timchenko T.N., Boran-Keshishyan A.L.
The Maritime industry plays one of the key role in world economy, occupying central position in becoming unified system of global transportations. At that, crew members ensure necessary vessel seakeeping and high-quality and safe delivery of cargo under contract of sea transportation. In accordance with requirements of the legislation any employer is obliged to insure health and life of employees under professional duties performance. However, this issue has its own specific aspects in shipping. The article considers in detail procedure of insuring health and life of the crew members, considering current trends in medical care support under professional duties performance on voyage. The key problematic aspects are identified. The corresponding recommendations are proposed.
Problems of Social Hygiene, Public Health and History of Medicine. 2022;30(3):428-433
The actual issues of medical support and health protection of functionaries of various categories of custom agencies of The Russian Federation
Tonkonog V.V., Golovan T.V., Arestova Y.A.
The social support of customs officials is one of the most important factors stimulating recruitment of qualified specialists in customs authorities and keeping qualified specialists in service. One of the main directions of development of social sphere of customs services in the Russian Federation is medical and sanitaria and health resort support of customs officials to protect their life and health. The priority development of social sphere of customs service of the Russian Federation is implementing by expanding network of departmental medical and sanitaria and health resort institutions in regional and large industrial centers through acquisition of new facilities and reconstruction and modernization of existing ones. The article considers categories of customs officials and procedure of applying medical and sanitaria and health resort measures. The official activity of each of categories of customs personnel is regulated by different Federal laws. Therefore, there are differences in standards of provision of social medical care and health protection.The results of analysis testify absence of separate normative legal document regulating provision of medical support of federal state civil employees. The medical insurance is guaranteed to all civil employees and these guarantees are fixed both in current legislation and contract in the form of essential condition. Therefore, right to health protection is provided mainly through compulsory medical insurance of citizens. It is proposed to develop and approve Federal law on provision of specialized types of medical insurance and an expanded list of medical services for state civil employees.
Problems of Social Hygiene, Public Health and History of Medicine. 2022;30(3):434-441
The physicians and the patients: who are they one to another?
Amlaev K.R., Bakunts S.A., Mazharov V.N.
The article considers issues of communication between physicians and patients and presents several models of corresponding relationships. The importance of involving patients in therapeutic partnership is emphasized. The barriers to effective communication between physician and patient and ways to overcome them are considered. The attention is paid to rules of effective listening to patients. The problem of receiving from patients their informed consent for particular procedures is considered, including rules of effective conducting “difficult conversation”.
Problems of Social Hygiene, Public Health and History of Medicine. 2022;30(3):442-447
The medical rehabilitation: planning work load and number of positions
Schipova V.M., Mirgorodskaya O.V., Shchepin V.O.
The article presents the results of analysis of normative legal documents and their changes related to planning of volume of medical care in “medical rehabilitation” profile. The calculation of planned normative number of beds of this profile from 2014 to 2021 is presented according to the number of bed-days and planned beds turnover. The number of arithmetic errors in planned indices of specialized medical care in hospital conditions for medical rehabilitation is demonstrated in the letters of the Minzdrav of Russia related to formation and economic validation of territorial program of state guarantees. So, significant decrease (by 44%) in recommended volumes in 2021 contradicts data presented in the Decree of the Government the Russian Federation. The violations of nomenclatures of positions of medical workers, double standard of the number of positions for day-and-night work are defects of vast majority of Orders about Procedures of provision of medical care that may testify severe problems in actual health planning. At the same time, such changes in Orders on Procedures of organizing medical rehabilitation as division into adults and children, alterations of set of units, staging in provision of medical care and corresponding staff standards, increasing of standard number of positions should result in improvement of quality of medical rehabilitation, including its implementation at early stages and expanding possibilities of rehabilitation without hospitalization related to organization of day hospital.
Problems of Social Hygiene, Public Health and History of Medicine. 2022;30(3):448-454
On the issue of Moscow health care reforms: a review of publications
Agamov Z.K.
The article presents review of scientific publications from databases of CyberLeninka and RSCI related to Moscow health care reforms within the framework of the Moscow State program “The Development of Moscow health care (Metropolitan health care) for 2012-2020”. The analysis established that during reforms positive shifts in Moscow health care system occurred, expressed by significant improvement in material and technical base of institutions, implementation of new diagnostic and treatment technologies, increasing of salary of medical workers, implementation of information technologies. However, the Moscow health care system continues to encounter challenges from problems related to staffing (especially the district service), high workload of medical personnel, insufficient level of motivation and low level of qualifications of medical workers. The implemented system of general medical practice did not contribute into strengthening the role of district physician as coordinator of patient flows. The fragmentation and lack of continuity in functioning of health care institutions remains too. The hospital-replacing technologies, designed to compensate reduction in beds, have not received development in primary health care. because of lacking of economic incentives for institutions and low tariffs. The serious problems associated with shortcomings in organization of functioning of medical institutions are established that requires further improvement of methods of analyzing functioning of medical institutions and organizational activities at all levels, considering effectiveness of activities implemented.
Problems of Social Hygiene, Public Health and History of Medicine. 2022;30(3):455-463
The organization of palliative medical care on the regional level
Shemetova G.N., Krasnikova N.V., Shebalova E.M., Balashova M.E.
The article considers particular issues of current state of palliative care organization, including out-patient stage of its provision, as exemplified by the Saratov Oblast. At the actual stage of national health care system development, palliative care system faces wide range of tasks that require immediate solutions, including significant list of diseases that determine palliative status of patients and number of patients in need of corresponding care. According to various estimates, in Russia more than 1.2% of population need palliative care. Despite active progress of institutionalization of palliative care in Russia, adoption of regional programs of development of palliative care, there are a number of difficulties and unresolved problems, concerning organizational issues of palliative care service and its normative legal framework and various aspects of corresponding assistance (pain relief, use of narcotic and psychotropic drugs, communication, etc.). Among emergency problems of palliative care service are: lack of integration and interdepartmental interaction in palliative care provision; insufficient awareness of real need of population in palliative care; lack of qualified palliative care specialists; insufficient provision of medical equipment, medical products and medications; high demand for volunteer organizations participation; insufficient involvement of social workers in palliative care support of adults and children.
Problems of Social Hygiene, Public Health and History of Medicine. 2022;30(3):464-468
The information support of inspection of medical organizations and management decision making
Korshever N.G., Pomoshnikov S.N.
In the contemporary complicated social economic conditions managerial decision-makings in health care are to consider specific characteristics of corresponding implementation in medical institutions. This is also true for informational support as a basis of adequate managerial decision-making. The purpose of the study is to investigate impact of medical institutions inspections on informational support of managerial decision-making. The expert survey of 32 health care administrators was carried out. This study proceeds previous ones concerning structure of managerial information sources dominated by results of inspections of medical institutions, completes them and presents new facts. The significant impact of implementation of inspection for acquiring information for further decision-making in medical institutions was established. The study results are a kind of link between inspections of medical institutions and subsequent managerial decision-makings and can be applied in health care administrators daily routine activity as well as for their professional training.
Problems of Social Hygiene, Public Health and History of Medicine. 2022;30(3):469-472
The strategic management of laboratory diagnostic service: analysis of organization models
Goldberg A.S., Aleksandrova O.Y., Kitsul I.S.
The modern trends in health care (strategies of optimizing costs, value-oriented medical care) require systematic development of laboratory services for administrative territories. The study was carried out to provide support for decision-making by systematizing models of laboratory services on the basis of principles of systematic approach. Four basic models (centralization, outsourcing, horizontal integration, point-of-care) were analyzed. The study applied such research methods as analytical and strategic SWOT-analysis. The SWOT-analysis was implemented using list of standard characteristics for each model of laboratory service organization. Each model is distinguished by complex combination of strengths, weaknesses, lines of functioning and development. The availability of implementing particular model depends on delicate balance of opportunities and risks against the background of local characteristics of administrative subject. The dynamics of the social economic and infrastructural development of administrative subject can significantly affect effectiveness of model implementation. The objective set of characteristics was obtained for each model of laboratory service organization. Actually it is impossible to select particular model for specific administrative subject. Hence, scientific substantiation of “flexible” model is needed to implement.
Problems of Social Hygiene, Public Health and History of Medicine. 2022;30(3):473-478
The attitude of medical workers to professional self-education and system of post-graduate medical education in Russia
Kornilov M.N., Akhmetova A.I., Tarasenko E.A.
The article presents analysis of changes in attitudes of medical practitioners toward professional self-education and barriers to increasing level of education in system of continuing medical education from beginning of its implementation in 2013 to 2020. The most important factor for medical workers motivation is internal factor: more than 90% of respondents indicated acquiring new knowledge and personal development as motivation both in 2020 and in 2014. However, in 2020, 63% of respondents are not ready to pay for their own education. So, medical workers are less interested to invest in their own professional development while interest in obtaining new knowledge and personal growth was soundly expressed. The alarming trend is in the fact that proportion of medical practitioners who consider professionally oriented reading necessary for self-education decreased in 2020. The medical workers also noted mistrust and several subjectively perceived barriers for professional development in the system of continuing medical education.
Problems of Social Hygiene, Public Health and History of Medicine. 2022;30(3):479-485
The analysis of state of system of training of first medical aid to professional contingents of the Ministry of Emergency Situations
Vetlugin I.G., Dezhurnyy L.I., Dubrov V.E., Shoygu Y.S., Garkavi A.V.
The article considers issues of training and motivation of first aid personnel whose duties are to provide it in accordance with Federal law. This category of personnel includes employees who received appropriate training, including military personnel and employees of State Fire Service, rescue units and rescue services staff. The results of analysis of training of emergency personnel in first aid demonstrates that level of first aid skills of these categories of personnel is different. Also it was established inconsistency of training programs with uniform standards. The conclusion is made that it is necessary to bring training to single standard and to introduce systematic approach to first aid training of this categories of personnel.
Problems of Social Hygiene, Public Health and History of Medicine. 2022;30(3):486-493
The application of the David back concept mechanotherapy in patients survived after myocardium infarction
Grashchenkova A.N., Chepkasova L.B., Puzin S.N., Bogova O.T., Achkasov E.E., Ivanova L.V.
The medical rehabilitation in all areas of medicine is developing actively and rapidly. In cardiology, medical rehabilitation contributes to prevention of recurrent myocardial infarction and other complications in patients with myocardial infarction. The study evaluated impact of anaerobic exercise and strength rehabilitation program on hemodynamics in patients with myocardial infarction using the David back concept mechanotherapy method.
Problems of Social Hygiene, Public Health and History of Medicine. 2022;30(3):494-498
The medical support of large-scale international events
Smirnov A.O., Sadykova T.I., Lopushov D.V.
The medical support is one of the most important components of effectiveness of international sports events. The purpose of the study is to analyze results of implementation of organizational approaches to medical support of international sports competitions at the World Skills Championship 2019 in Kazan, previously developed and successfully approved on the model of the 2013 World's Students Games (Kazan). The medical support plan included preparation of regulatory base, resources of medical infrastructure at sports venues, including personnel training and measures to eliminate the medical and sanitary consequences of emergencies. At the objects of the Championship, 21 medical aid posts, 23 mobile medical teams functioned, and 22 ambulance teams were on duty. The estimated number of medical staff involved in work at the Championship venues was 120 people, or 8.9 people per 100 contestants. There were 1883 registered medical requests. The largest percentage of requests fell on staff (29.6%), volunteers (20.4%), contestants (18.1%) and visitors (10.7%). Among the accredited persons, the most requested medical assistance was for respiratory diseases (8.5 ‰), diseases of the nervous system (8.4 ‰) and injuries (7.2 ‰). The application of developed approaches to medical support of international sports competitions for the World Skills World Championship allowed to organize provision of medical care to client groups at high level.
Problems of Social Hygiene, Public Health and History of Medicine. 2022;30(3):499-502
The Russian pharmaceutical industry in 1990s. Report III. Insider vision
Zatravkin S.N., Vishlenkova E.A., Ignatiev V.G.
The third report, which is a continuation of article on the Russian pharmaceutical branch in the 1990s, analyses corresponding conceptions of internal observers (participators of production and distribution of medications), including their assessments of normality of emerging market. The conclusion is made that the Russian pharmaceutical market grew from chaos that resulted from wreckage of the Soviet medication supply system in 1994-1998. The general dominance of generics over patented medications, distributors over manufacturers, weak interest of state authorities to long-term cooperation with pharmaceutics for the sake of development of own national production, low legal culture were generic characteristics of its infrastructure.
Problems of Social Hygiene, Public Health and History of Medicine. 2022;30(3):503-507
The historical case of discussion on sanitary anti-epidemic activities during period of revolutionary events of 1917 in Irkutsk
Gaidarov G.M., Alekseevskaya T.I.
The article presents analysis of historical case of discussion about organization of anti-epidemic measures needed because of one-time arrival of large number of wounded and killed in consequence of counter-revolutionary mutiny in Irkutsk during defense of the White House country-house in December 1917. The problem of burial of fallen soldiers and Red Army men was determined during extraordinary session of the City Duma of Irkutsk with further publication of open letter to the Irkutsk Presidium of the Soviets. The well-reasoned positions expressed by physicians and engineers against burial of the killed in common grave on the banks of the Angara River received no support from the revolutionary government. The chronology of the decision taking had political character.
Problems of Social Hygiene, Public Health and History of Medicine. 2022;30(3):508-510
Nikolai Mikhailovich Borodin: the little-known person involved in the USSR penicillin project
Sherstneva E.V.
The progress in development of the Soviet penicillin industry in the late 1940s was associated with implementation of foreign experience. The article, on the basis of analysis of declassified archival documents, demonstrates that one of the initiators of development of industry on the basis of foreign technologies was N. M. Borodin, doctor of biological sciences. N. M. Borodin, while on scientific assignments in England, provided the USSR with important scientific and technical information and producers for production of penicillin and streptomycin. It is established that familiarity of N. M. Borodin with arrangement of scientific research and organization of antibiotics production abroad resulted in his plan of developing the Soviet penicillin industry that was noted by the USSR leadership.
Problems of Social Hygiene, Public Health and History of Medicine. 2022;30(3):511-516
The “Nastas'in Pestilence”: the Great Plague of 1417-1425 in Rus
Penskoy V.V., Lipich T.I., Bovkunova A.V., Borisova O.S.
The plague pandemic (“The Black Death”) that struck Eurasia in the middle of XIV century, “settled” this lethal disease in Europe for a long time. The new outbreaks of this disease, with breaks of several years, occurred in single cities, regions and states, covering sometimes entire continent over the next centuries. However, impression that “The Black Death” made upon minds of European scribes, staggering European society by its inevitability, for a long time determined particular angle of view under which it is accepted to consider the history of plague in Europe in the epoch of Middle Ages and early New Age. The image of The Great Plague of XIV century overshadowed all subsequent outbreaks of this lethal disease, so its subsequent occurrences are traditionally given less attention. The article, being based on on analysis of numerous chronicle evidences, for the first time in Russian historiography analyzes the history of plague in Rus during first decades of XV century and restores chronology of its occurrence and development and determines areas affected by the plague in the first place, estimating caused damage.
Problems of Social Hygiene, Public Health and History of Medicine. 2022;30(3):517-523
The review of the book “The History of Medicine and Medical Geography in the Russian Empire” edited by E. A. Vishlenkova, A. Renner
Ratmanov P.E.
Problems of Social Hygiene, Public Health and History of Medicine. 2022;30(3):524-526

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